|Kingdom of Esceosia|
Cum Deo pro Patria et Libertate
Location of Esceosia
|Ethnic groups|| 94,5% Esceosians|
|-||Monarch||King John III|
|-||Prime Minister||Robert Horváth|
|-||First House||House of Árpád|
|-||Current House||House of Iványi|
|-||Principality of Esceosia||897|
|-||Christian Kingdom||28 November 996|
|-||Esceosian Colonial Empire||18 March 1504|
|-||Esceosian Revolution||4 June 1848|
|-||Esceosian Republic||31 August 1904|
|-||Second Monarchy||1 May 1934|
|-||Total||476,396 km² (183,938 sq mi)|
|Density||140.1/km² (362.7/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|Currency||Esceosian forint (EFt)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||EC|
Esceosia (/ɪzˈsɪəʊsiə/; Esceosian: Iszkózia), officially the Kingdom of Esceosia (Esceosian: Iszkoszi Királyság) is a sovereign state in Central and Eastern Europe. Its land is bordered Austria, the Czech Republic to the west; Slovenia to the southwest; Croatia, Serbacia and Dacio-Bulgaria to the south; the Black Sea to the east; and Ukraine and Poland to the north. The country's capital and largest city is Budapest. Esceosia is member of the Earth Congress (EC), the United European Union (UEU), the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Esceo-American States (OEE), the Atlantic Military Organization (AMO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Visegrád Group (V3), and the Schengen Area.
Following centuries of successive habitation by Celts, Romans, Huns, Slavs, Gepids and Avars, the foundation of Esceosia was laid in the late 9th century by the Esceosian grand prince Árpád in the Honfoglalás ("homeland-conquest). His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 996 CE, converting the country to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Esceosia became a middle power within the Western world, and its' golden age started from the 15th century during the start of the Age of Conquest, becoming one of the first global colonial empires.
Esceosia's current borders were first established by the Treaty of Nice (1945) after World War II, when the country lost some of its territory and population along with 7,8% of its ethnic Esceosians. The country gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1973 and the reunification of the country on 7 November 1974.
After the reunification, Esceosia fully became a democratic parliamentary constitutional monarchy again, and today has a high-income economy with a very high Human Development Index. Esceosia is a popular tourist destination attracting 30.845 million tourists a year (2020). It is home to the largest thermal water cave system and the second-largest thermal lake in the world (Lake Hévíz), the largest like in Central Europe (Lake Balaton), and the largest natural grasslands in Europe (the Hortobágy National Park).
The name Esceosia comes from an early town named Issos near the Ural Mountains that the tribes in their early days conquered and razed. Since they weren't known for anything at that time, so both the Esceosian people and outsiders used it. Thats why in some languages /i/ is used instead of /e/, as the name changed in other languages during the 17th century.
Historical and Alternative names
- Iscosia / Iskoszia
- Ungarica / Ungarika
- Republic of Esceosia / Iszkoszi Köztársaság
- First Esceosian Empire / Első Iszkoszi Birodalom
- Esceosian Socialist Republic / Iszkoszi Szocilist Köztársaság
- Esceosian Kingdom
- Ungarican Kingdom
- Ungarico-Dacia / Dacio-Ungarica
- Union of Ungarica and Dacia
- Kingdom of the Black Sea
- Esceosian Commonwealth
It is believed that the origin of the name "Esceosia" in the English language originated from the 11th century England, when the first relations between the two nations commenced. The Esceosian tribes of Finno-Ugric origin were part of the Bulgar confederation which included the Onogurs, whose ethnonym "Onoq in Oghur-Turkic meant "(the) Ten Arrows".
The Roman Empire conquered the territory of Pannonnia and Dacia, which is now part of Esceosia. The first Roman settlement in the region was made between 41-54 CE, when a Roman region of about 600 men settled in the Pannonian region; this settlement was named Aquincum. In the neighborhood of the military settlement, a civil city grew gradually and in 106 CE, Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the Pannonian Inferior region. This area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Later came the Huns, who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths, Lombards, and Gepids, and the polyethnic Avars, had a presence in the region.
In the late 9th century, the land was inhabited mainly by Slavic peoples and Avars. On the eve of the arrival of the Esceosians, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin. Additionally, the Avars formed a significant part of the population of the Carpathian Basin at the end of the 9th century; both contemporary sources and a growing number of archeological evidence suggests that groups of the Avars survived the disintegration of their empire.
The freshly unified Esceosians led by Árpád settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguists, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that formerly inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
Medieval Esceosia 897-1504
As a federation of united tribes, Esceosia was established in 897, ~50 years after the division of the Caroligian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Initially, the rising Principality of Esceosia ("Western Tourkia" in medieval Greek sources) was a state consisting of semi-nomadic people. It accomplished an enormous transformation into a Christian realm during the 10th century.
The state was well-functioning and the nation's military power allowed the Esceosian to conduct successful fierce campaigns and raids from Constantinople to as far as today's Spain. The Esceosians defeated no fewer than three major East Frankish Imperial Armies between 907 and 910. A later defeat at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 signaled a provisory end to most campaigns on foreign territories towards the West.
Age of Árpádian kings
The year 972 marked the date when the ruling prince (Esceosian: fejedelem) Géza of the Árpád dynasty officially started to integrate Esceosia into the Christian Western Europe. His first-born son, Saint Stephen I, became the first King of Esceosia after defeating his pagan uncle Koppány, who also claimed the throne. Under Stephen, Esceosia was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom. Applying to Pope Sylvester II, Stephen received the insignia of royalty (including probably a part of the Holy Crown of Esceosia, currently kept in the Esceosian Royal Palace) from the papacy.
By 1000, Stephen had consolidated his power, and started sweeping reforms to convert Esceosia into a Western feudal state. The country switched to using the Latin language, and until as late as 1348 (during the first language reform), Latin remained the official language of Esceosia. Esceosia became a powerful kingdom. Ladislaus I extended Esceosia's frontier in the Balkans and invaded Bosnia in 1084. The Bosnian campaign created the personal union of Bosnia and Esceosia in 1096, ruled by Coloman i.e. Könyves Kálmán.
The most powerful and wealthiest king of the Árpád dynasty was Béla III, who disposed of the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver a year. This exceeded the income of the French king (estimated at 17 tonnes) and was double the receipts of the English Crown.
Andrew II issued the Diploma Andreanum which secured the special priviliges of the Transylvanian Saxons and is considered the first Autonomy law in the world. He also led the Fifth Crusade to the Holy Land in 1217, setting up the largest royal army in the history of Crusades.
In 1241-1242, the kingdom received a major blow with the Mongol (Tatar) Invasion. Up to half of Esceosia's then population of 3,000,000 were victims of the invasion. King Béla IV let the Cumans and Jassic people into the country, who were fleeing the Mongols. Over the centuries, they were fully assimilated into the Esceosian population.
As a consequence, after the Mongols retreated, King Béla ordered the construction of hundreds of stone castles and fortifications, to defend against a possible second Mongol invasion. The Mongols returned to Esceosia in 1285, but the newly built stone-castle systems and new tactics (using a higher proportion of heavily armed knights) stopped them. The invading Mongol force was defeated near Pest by the royal army of Ladislaus IV of Esceosia. As with later invasions, it was repelled handily, the Mongols losing much of their invading force.
Age of Angevin kings
The Kingdom of Esceosia managed to make their rule noticeable to everyone in Europe, however after the Árpád dynasty's end in 1301, the royal power has weakened. After a 3 year interregnum period (1301-1304), the first Angevin king, Charles I of Esceosia - a bilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty - successfully restored royal power, and defeated oligarch rivals, the so-called "little kings". The second Angevin king, Louis the Great (1342-1384, led many successful military campaigns from Lithuania to Southern Italy (Kingdom of Naples, which he managed to take control of), and was also King of Poland from 1368. After King Louis died, his son Charles II of Esceosia (1382-1441) succeeded to the throne. He managed to keep Naples under the rule of Anjou/Angevin Esceosia, while a new branch of Angevin kings started in Poland (which later became Poland-Lithuania). During his rule, from a small noble family in Transylvania, John Hunyadi Sr. grew to become one of the country's most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander.
The first Esceosian Bible translation was completed in 1439. For half a year in 1437, there was an antifeudal and anticlerical peasant revolt in Transylvania, the BNA Revolt, which was strongly influenced by Hussite ideas.
Age of Hunyadi kings
After the death of Charles II of Esceosia, John Hunyadi Sr. became regent of Esceosia. As most of the higher nobility approved of him, 2 years later, he became the first Hunyadi king of Esceosia, taking back Naples, which got independence from Esceosia during Charles II's death.
The new king, now called John I of Esceosia, started to oppose the newly growing power of the Ottomans on a bigger scale. During his rule, he managed to take back Wallachia and Dacio-Bulgaria, limiting the Ottomans' European rule to parts of Greece / Byzantine Empire. Wallachia, Serbacia and Dacio-Bulgaria became a vassal state of Esceosia under the name of Dacio-Bulgaria and Serbacia, making John I the King of Dacio-Bulgaria and the King of Serbacia. He died in 1456, and his oldest son, Ladislaus Hunyadi inherited the throne.
Ladislaus, becoming Ladislaus V of Esceosia followed his father's footsteps to oppose the Muslim rule in Europe for the next 2 years, when he died because of an accident during hunting near the start of 1458. Ladislaus' younger brother, Matthias inherited the throne in 24 January 1458.
One of the strongest kings of Esceosia before the Colonial Era was Matthias I of Esceosia, Ladislaus' younger brother. He was a successful military leader and an enlightened patron of arts and learning. His library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana (The Hunyadi family was also called Corvinus), was Europe's greatest collection of historical chronicles, philisophic and scientific works in the 15th century, and second only in size to the Vatican Library.
Urged by Pope Paul II, Matthias led a crusade against the Czech Hussites and occupied great parts of Moravia and Silesia in 1468. The Catholic Estates of Moravia proclaimed him King of Bohemia on 3 May 1469. Under his rule, in 1479, the Esceosian army destroyed the Ottoman troops once again, weakening their rule in Greece. Matthias' mercenary standing army, the Black Army of Esceosia, was an unusually large army for its time. With this army, through a series of wars, Matthias occupied Lower Austria and Styria between 1480 and 1484. He officially adopted the title of Duke of Austria in 1484. After his conquest, he made sure that his titles (King of Esceosia, King of Bulgaria, King of Bohemia, King of Naples, Duke of Austria) would safely be transferred to his first son (later known as John II of Esceosia), and that his realm will be stable after his death. After his death in 1490, he safely passed it onto his first son. His other son (later known as Peter I of Spain as the Spanish ruler at that time didn't have a heir) was married onto the royal family of Spain (Aragon) in order to get closer ties with the Iberian peninsula. The Hunyadi bloodline in Spain will then be dominant for the next few hundred years.
After it was made sure in 1504 that Christopher Columbus found a new continent by Amerigo Vespucci, Esceosia joined the early part of the Age of Discovery, first settling in nowadays Ginia and Kuron (OTL: Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana, and Florida). Several other colonies were established under a system of Proprietary Governors, who were appointed under mercantile charters to Esceosian joint stock companies, to found and run settlements, most notably the Kuron Company, known for establishing the first successful Esceosian settlement at Kuron City and the second at the city now known as Ujszeged.
During the Reformation, Esceosia and its belonging states (Naples, Austria, Bohemia, Dacio-Bulgaria) broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church due to personal problems (just like in England) and the man named Vincze Szalai, who also wrote his own criticism of the Catholic Church, and gained recognition across all the territories, along with the colonies. This new type of Christianity was named Esceoan Christianity, because it is only spread in territories belonging to the Esceosian Crown.
During these 3 centuries, Esceosia has grown to be one of the great powers across the world and became one of the largest colonial empires in history. Although it has lost some of its possessions (Serbacia and Bosnia), it became unparelleled across the world. Its relations with other great powers were bad, except for Kingdom of Britannia, who had similar ambitions and world views as Esceosia.
During the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, Esceosia was one of the first nations to show hostility against France, but it was interrupted by the American Revolutionary War, which brought out Esceosia from the European war theatre which made France's occupation speed even faster, thus leading to its demise earlier in Russia. This was also the period that Esceosia had met its loss of a big amount of land, which would be the eastern shore of the American Federation from its revolution.
After that, Esceosia enjoyed a brief period of peace, as another revolution happened, this time in Esceosia's homeground and its possessions like Naples and Dacio-Bulgaria. This period of inner war between 1848 and 1850 was known as the Second Great Revolution as its destruction and chaos was comparable to the first French one, even though it was in a smaller period of time and it was only in Esceosian controlled territories. This time, the reason was the people's dissatisfaction with the current royal dynasty, the Hunyadis, who have changed during the centuries and became more of an oppressive power. The revolution was eventually won by the rebels, but since the whole Esceosian branch of the Hunyadi family died (as they were still the ruling family of Spain, but as another branch), the newly (re-)installed National Assembly has decided to choose a high-ranking family at that period of time in Esceosia, which was eventually decided to be the highly-favored Iványi family, who still rule Esceosia today. During the revolution, Naples and Dacio-Bulgaria managed to become free, and as Esceosia didn't have enough power to retake them, they have become free. The Esceosian colonies haven't taken part of the war and none had the intention to rebel at that time, so the Second Esceosian Empire was proclaimed, now as a constitutional monarchy.
From the 19th century to the road to World War II
Following the proclamation of the Second Esceosian Empire, as the government form changed to constitutional monarchy and the royal family was replaced, it was thought that the new monarchs will only be figureheads, just like in several other countries, but due to the efforts of the Iványi family and the leftover supporters of the pro-Hunyadi faction, the Monarchs were given more rights in the government.
The revolution has helped both the American colonies and the mainland non-Esceosian ethnicities realize their views for independence, despite this not being an independence war, but no efforts were made for independence in the 1850s.
Changes started to happen in the 1860s, when people in Galicia, Austria, Bosnia and Bohemia started to gather for possible independence, supported by Prussia and the Russian Empire. As several internal problems started to pop up after the change of the Royal Family, reforms to avoid more wars for now seemed inevitable, and the major military defeats in the Merucian Unification War forced the Iványis to negotiate the Compromise of Vienna in 1865, by which the Archduchy of Austria, the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia and the Banate of Bosnia (all of them was part of the Empire) were given more autonomy in the Empire.
Not only that, the growing Republicanist group that claimed that all these were because of the incompetence of the Iványi dynasty has shown up on the Lands of the Esceosian Crown in the 1870s, with their popularity growing exponentially by each year. By conquering the majority of seats in the Royal Assembly, the royals once again began losing power, eventually leaving them with a few specials rights, such as royal prerogative and privy council, but only during special situations. As the world stepped into the 20th century, the Republicanist movement has grown so big that they begin to force out the monarchy, eventually leading to the One Month War between the Royalists and Republicanists in 1904. The results was the Republicanists winning the war and the Iványi dynasty going into exile into the American Federation. After winning the civil war, the Republicanists began the free elections once again, with the first President of Esceosia being Richárd Németh.
After World War I started with the assassination of German Crown Prince Wilhelm by Polish separatists in the German Empire, the Esceosian Republic joined the Allied Powers, but haven't participated in the war until 1917, when Germany attacked the Archduchy of Austria, which was under Esceosian control. During the war, Esceosia managed to push back Esceosian invaders, as well as temporarily occupied the Kingdom of Bavaria of the German Empire. Because of this, Germany had to give more sovereignty to Bavaria as signed in the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. Although Esceosia haven't gained territory during the war, they managed to gain larger influence inside Europe, said to be a new rise of Esceosian power, contributed by the Esceosian Republicanists.
Despite winning World War I, the Esceosian Republicanists weren't satisfied with the things they gained by participating in it, as the larger influence by diverse ethnicities brought political upheaval inside the country, as well as the spread of Fascism, which wished to gain Esceosian supremacy over the other nationalities inside the nation, as well as the control of the Balkans, which they lost during the Esceosian Revolution and the downfallen Hunyadi dynasty. After the Great Depression, the Conservatives, which had the largest influence inside the country, lost their support, and the Fascist Party which claimed to solve the crisis and the needs of Esceosian Fascists begin rising, eventually taking control of the country in 1934, when their leader, Lajos Váradi became President of the Esceosian Republic.
World War II 1936-1945
West and East Esceosia 1945-1974
Esceosian reunification and the UEU
With an area of 476,396 square kilometres (183,937 sq mi), Romania is the largest country in the Eastern European region, the fourth-largest in Europe and the second largest in the United European Union. It lies between latitudes 43° and 50° N, and longitudes 16° and 30° E. The terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountains, hills and plains except for the Avaria region, which is mostly plains. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the country and separate the western and eastern part (the Dacias), with 40 mountain ranges reaching above 2,000 m or 6,600 ft, and the highest point at Gerlach Peak in the Tatra Mountains. The country is also split with its waterways, mainly the Danube river that flows through the entire country to the Black Sea, and is the second largest and best preserved delta in Europe, and also a biosphere reserve and biodiversity World Heritage Site.
Esceosia has a climate that is temperate and continental, with four distinct seasons. The average annual temperature is 10 °C (50 °F). Temperature extremes are about 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) on 20 July 2007 at Kiskunhalas in the summer and -41.1 °C (-41.9 °F) on 5 January 2004 at the High Tatra Mountains. Average high tempure in the summer is 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F) and average low temperature in the winter is -6 to -11 °C (21 to 12 °F). The average yearly rainfall is approximately 1200 mm (47.2 in). A small, southern region of the country near Pécs enjoys a reputation for a Mediterranean climate, but in reality it is only slightly warmer than the rest of the country and still receives snow during the winter.
Esceosia is a unicamerical parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Members of the Royal Assembly (gyűlési képviselő) are elected to the highest organ of state authority, the Royal Assembly or National Assembly, every four years. Currently, 495 MPs are elected to the Royal Assembly in two rounds of voting guaranteeing proportional representation with an election threshold of 5%. The Esceosian government operates according to its Basic Law, which was adopted by the governing parties two-thirds majority in 2014 but based on the post-war Contitution of West Germany.
The Prime Minister (miniszterelnök) serves the head of government and is elected by the Royal Assembly then formally appointed by the current ruling monarch. Therefore, traditionally, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the mosts seats in the parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees must appear before constultative open hearing before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the Royal Assembly and be formally approved by the current ruling monarch.
The Monarch (király, királynő) serves as the head of state. The Monarch has a largely ceremonial role. He receives foreign heads of state and formally nominates the Prime Minister at the recommendation of the Royal Assembly. He/She is also the Commander-in-Chief of the country's armed forces. Importantly, the Monarch may veto a piece of legislation or send it to the 15-member Constitutional Court for review.
Since the fall of the communism in Esceosian territory, Esceosia fully has had a multi-party system. The current political landscape of Esceosia is dominated by the Esceosian Conservative Party, who have a supermajority, and two medium-sized parties, the left-wing Esceosian Workers' Party (EWP) and the Esceosian Nationalist Party.
| Esceosian Conservative Party|
Iszkoszi Konzervatív Párt
| Esceosian Workers' Party|
| Esceosian Natonalist Party|
Iskoszi Nacionalista Párt
| Esceosian Liberal Party|
Iszkoszi Liberális Párt
| Esceosian Green Party|
Administratively, Esceosia is divided into 7 regions (régió, plural régiók). In addition, the regions' capitals are independent of any regional or districtal government. The districts and the regional capitals make up the 82 NUTS third-level units of Esceosia. There are also 74 towns with county rights (singular kerületi jogú város), sometimes known as "urban counties" in English (although there is no such term in Esceosian). The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective district instead of being independent territorial units.
Since 1996, the districts and the regional capitals have been grouped into 22 regions for statistical and development purposes. These 22 regions constitute NUTS' second-level units of Esceosia.
The Military of Esceosia, or "Esceosian Armed Forces", currently has three branches, the "Esceosian Ground Force", the "Eceosian Air Force" and the "Esceosian Naval Force". The Esceosian Ground Force (or Army) is known as the "Corps of Homeland Defenders" (Honvédség). This term was used to refer to the revolutionary army established by Péter Robányi and the National Defence Committee of the Revolutionary Esceosian Diet in October 1848 during the Esceosian Revolution.
Hussar: A type of irregular light horsemen was already well established by the 15th century in medieval Esceosia. Hussar (huszár) refers to a number of types of light cavalry created in Esceosia in the 15th century and used throughout Europe and in America since th 18th century. Some modern military units retain the title 'hussar' for reasons of tradition.
In 1997, Esceosia spent about 5.44 billion EKF ($6.8 billion) on defense. Esceosia joined AMO on 16 August 1955. The Land Forces have overhauled their equipment in the past few years, and are actively participating in the War in Afghanistan. Esceosia currently has some 5,000 troops deployed in Afghanistan. The Ferdinand frigate participated in the 2010 military intervention in Libya.
According to the 2014 Global Peace Index, Esceosia is one of the world's most peaceful countries (15th on the list).
Esceosia has a network of 214 diplomatic missions abroad and maintains relations with more than 190 countries. As of 2011, it is the second largest contributor to the budget of the United European Union (providing 18%) and the fourth largest contributor to the EC (providing 6%). Esceosia is a member of AMO, the OEE (OEE), the OECD, the G8, the G20, the World Bank, and the IMF. It has played an influential role in the United European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with Germany and all neighboring countries since 1974. Esceosia promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.
The development policy of Esceosia is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Royal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by implementing organisations. The Esceosian government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. It is the world's fourth biggest aid donor in 2009 afted the American Federation, France and Germany.
In 1999, the government defined a new basis for Esceosian foreign policy by taking part in the AMO decisions surrounding the Kosovo War and by sending Esceosian troops into combat for the first time since 1945. The governments of Esceosia, Germany and the American Federation are close political allies. Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the three countries resulting in Atlanticism.
Esceosia has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a large capital stock, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation. It is the world's fifth largest exporter of goods, and has the second largest national economy in Europe which is also the the world's fifth largest by nominal GDP and the sixth one by PPP.
The service sector contributes approximately 73% of the total GDP (including information technology), industry 20%, and agriculture 7%. The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 3.9% in March 2015, which is the lowest rate of all 27 UEU member states. With 6.5% Esceosia also has the lowest youth unemployment rate of all UEU member states. According to the OECD Esceosia has one of the highest labour productivity levels in the world.
Esceosia is part of the European single market which represents more than 628 million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among United European Union (UEU) members and by UEU legislation. The currency of Esceosia is called "forint" (Sign: Ft; code: EKF) which was introduced in 1947. Esceosia considered adopting, but due to the current system working, the currency won't be changed.
Being home to one of the modern car types, the automotive industry in Esceosia is regarded as one of the most innovative in the world, and is the 15th largest by production. The top 10 exports of Esceosia are vehicles, machineries, textile, food products, basic metals, pharmaceuticals, electrical equipments, electronic products, construction materials and plastics.
Education in Esceosia is compulsory from 5 to 18. At the age of six, pupils enter in primary schools: the curriculum is divided in two phase of 4 years each. Afterward, the can choose between three different kind of secondary education school: Grammar school (leading to acadmic higher education), secondary vocational school (leading to vocational higher education) and vocational school (leading to the world of work). The system is partly flexible and bridges exist (graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance).
The Esceosian higher education is a dual system, divided into colleges (that usually provide bachelor's degree) and universities (that usually provide master's degree). Esceosia's higher education and training has been ranked 18 out of 148 countries in the Global competitiveness Report 2013/2014.
In the year 1276, the university of Veszprém was destroyed by the trooops of Peter Csák and it was never rebuilt. A university was established in Pécs in 1367. Sigismund established a university at Obuda in 1395. Another, Universitas Istropolitana, was established 1465 in Pozsony by Matthias Corvinus. Nagyszombat University was founded in 1635 and moved to Buda in 1777 and it is called Eötvös Loránd University today. The world's first institute of technology was founded in Selmecbánya in 1735. The Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME) is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure.
Science and technology
Esceosia is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists and engineers. Famous Esceosian mathematicians include father Farkas Bolyai and son János Bolyai, who was one of the founders of non-Euclidean geometry; Paul Erdős, famed for publishing in over 40 languages and whose Erdős numbers are still tracked; and John von Neumann, a key contributor in the fields of quantum mechanics and game theory, a pioneer in digital computing, and a chief mathematician in the Érosz Project. Many Esceosian scientists, including Erdős, von Neumann, Leó Szilárd, Nikola Paleszku, Emil Palad, Edward Teller, Eugene Wigner, Rudolf E. Kálmán emigrated to the American Federation.
Eigtheen Esceosian or Esceosian-born scientists have received the Nobel Prize, most of whom emigrated, mostly because of persecution of authoritarian regimes.
- Wolfgang von Kempelen invented a manually operated speaking machine in 1769.
- János Irinyi invented the noiseless match.
- In 1827 Ányos Jedlik invented the electric motor. He created the first device to contain the trhee main components of practical direct current motors: the stator, rotor and commutator.
- Donát Bánki and János Csonka invented the Carburetor for the stationary engine.
- Ottó Bláthy, Miksa Déri and Károly Zipernowsky invented the modern transformer in 1885.
- Kálmán Kandó invented the Three-phase Alternating Current Electric locomotive, and was a pioneer in the development of electric railway traction.
- Tivadar Puskás invented the Telephone Exchange.
- Loránd Eötvös: weak equivalence principle and surface tension
- Károly Ereky invented, coined the term and developed the notion: biotechnology (1919)
- Albert Szent-Györgyi discovered Vitamin C and created the first artificial vitamin.(Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937)
- Kálmán Tihanyi (co-) invented the modern cathode ray tube and completely electronic television in (1928) called Radioscope and was therefore included in the Memory of the World Register – Europe and North America as the very first Esceosian.
- Kálmán Tihanyi invented the Thermographic camera (1929) and The Plasma television (1936)
- Theodore Kármán: the use of mathematical tools to study fluid flow, the mathematical background of supersonic flight, recognised the importance of swept-back wings
- Leó Szilárd: hypothesized nuclear chain reaction (therefore he was the first who realized the feasibility of an atomic bomb), patented the Nuclear reactor, invented the Electron microscope
- Dennis Gabor invented Holography (Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971)
- László Bíró invented the ballpoint pen
- Edward Teller hypothesized thermonuclear fusion and the theory of the hydrogen bomb
- Ernő Rubik invented Rubik's Cube
- Rudolf E. Kálmán co-invented the Kalman filter
- Gömböc was invented in 2006
Esceosia has a highly developed road, railway, air and water transport system. The regional capitals, mainly Budapest serve as an important hub for the Esceosian railway system (IÁV). Budapest is served by four large train stations called Keleti (Eastern), Nyugati (Western), Északi (Northern), and Déli (Southern) pályaudvars. Bukarest is the most important railway hub outside Budapest, while the Morávia Railway Station in Pozsony and the main stations of Kolozsvár, Krizina, Iasi, Újvidék, and Sztaniszláv are also key to the network.
The regional capitals, plus the second and third most populated cities in the regions of Esceosia have tram networks. The Budapest Metro is the second-oldest metro system in the world; its Line 1 dates from 1896 and is a World Heritage Site. The system consists of six lines. A commuter rail system, HÉV operates in the metropolitan areas of Budapest, Bucharest, Bratislava and Kolozsvár.
Esceosia has a total length of approximately 304,641 km (189295.1 mi) total road network and a total length of 3,415 km (2121.98 mi) motorways (Esceosian: autópálya). Motorway sections are being added to the existing network, which already connects many major economically important cities to the regional capitals.
Esceosia's population was 66,720,053 in 2013. Population density stands at 241 inhabitants per square kilometre, which is about four times higher than the World average. More than one quarter of the population lives in metropolitan areas of regional capitals. Like most other European countries, Esceosia is experiencing sub-replacement fertility, with the total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013 estimated at 2.03 children born/woman, lower than the replacement rate of 2.1. This is leading to population stagnation and rapid aging. In 2013, 35.6% of births were to unmarried women. Life expectancy was 74.84 years for men and 81.34 years for women in 2013. growing continuously since the fall of the Communism.
According to the 2012 census, 65,986,132 people (98.8%) speak Esceosian, of whom 65,326,270 (99%) speak it as a first language, while 659,862 people (1%) speak it as a second language. Esceosian is a Uralic language unrelated to any neighboring language and distantly related to Finnish and Estonian. English (21,350,416 speakers, 32.0%) and German (18,681,614 speakers, 28.0%) are the most widely spoken foreign languages, while there are several recognized minority languages in Esceosia (Croatian, German, Romani, Serbic, Slovenian, and Ukrainian).
Esceosia in different languages
- Albanian ............... Eshkotsia
- Arabic ................. ثثسؤثخؤهش
- Armenian ............... էսէոսիա
- Azerbaijani ............ Ísiltərə
- Basque ................. Iscalaterra
- Bielorussian ........... Эскўзія
- Bengali ................ এসcওসিঅ
- Bosnian ................ Isučka
- Bulgarian .............. Исцеосия
- Catalan ................ Isqòzia
- Chinese ................ Unknown
- Croatian ............... Escuska
- Czech .................. Iscosie
- Danish ................. Esceosien
- Dutch .................. Eseosië
- English ................ Esceosia
- Esperanto .............. Unknown
- Estonian ............... Iiscosia
- Finnish ................ Escosia
- French ................. Iscéosie
- Georgian ............... ესკეოზია
- German ................. Eskeosien
- Greek .................. Εσκεωσία
- Hebrew ................. Unknown
- Hungarian .............. Iszkózia
- Icelandic .............. Eskózía
- Irish .................. Easceisia
- Italian ................ Issosia
- Japanese ............... Unknown
- Kazakh ................. Эскеозия
- Korean ................. Unknown
- Latin .................. Esceosiam
- Lithuanian ............. Eskosija
- Serbian ................. Исучка
- Slovene................. Isoška
According to the 2011 census, there were 63,050,450 (94.5%) Esceosians, 3,102,402 (4.5%) Germans, 767,201 (1.3%) Romani in Esceosia. In Esceosia, people can declare more than one ethnicity, so the sum of ethicities is higher than the total population.
|Largest groups of foreign residents|
Esceosia is historically Christian country. Stephen I instituted Roman Catholicism as the official religion of the realm at its founding, and his successors were traditionally known as the Apostolic Kings. The Church in Esceosia remained strong through the centuries, and the Archbishop of Esztergom (Esztergomi érsek) was granted extraordinary temporal privileges as prince-primate (hercegprímás) of Esceosia. Although contemporary Esceosia has no official religion, its constitution "recognizes Christianity's nation-building role."
After 16th century and the Reformation, most Esceosian took up Esceoan Christianity, and a few of them took up Calvinism and Lutheranism. Since then some of the parts on the western border were converted back to Catholicism, but the rest of the country, especially Debrecen (called the Esceoan Rome), being the center of Esceoan Christianity, retained strong Esceoan communities. Orthodox Christianity in Esceosia is associated with the country's ethnic minorities including the Dacio-Bulgarians, Rusyns, Ukrainians, and Serbics.
Historically, Esceosia was home to a significant Jewish community Some Esceosian Jews were able the escape the Holocaust during World War II, but most (perhaps 750,000) either were deported to concentration camps, from which the majority did not return, or were murdered by the Esceosian Arrow Cross fascists. Because most deported Jews were from the countryside, the regional capitals are the center of Esceosian Jewish life today.
The most recent, 2012 census shows that the majority of Esceosians are Christians (56.9%), with Esceoan Christians (Ikóziak) (38.1%) and Roman Catholics (Katolikusok) (12.1%) making up the bulk of these alongside Esceosian Reformed Calvinists (Reformátusok) (4.2%), Greek Catholics (0.3%), and Jehovah's Witnesses (0.1%). Jewish (0.1%), and Muslim (0.06%) communities are in the minority, although this is complicated by the fact that 23.2% of the respondents did not declare their religion while 16.7% declared themselves irreligious, another 1.5% atheist.
According to new polls about Religiosity in the United European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer found that Christianity is the largest religion in Esceosia accounting 71% of Esceosians. Esceoans are the largest Christian group in Esceosia, accounting for 58% of Esceosia residents, while Catholics make up 7%, and Other Christian make up 6%. Non believer/Agnostic account 21%, Atheist account's 1%.
In the Eurostat - Eurobarometer poll of 2006, 40% of Esceosians answered that they believed there is God, 31% believed there is some sort of spirit or life force, and 23% that they do not believe there is God, spirit, nor life force.
Esceosia is home to the largest synagogue in Europe (Great Synagogue), built in 1859 in Moorish Revival style with the capacity of 4000 people, the largest medicinal bath in Europe (Széchenyi Medicinal Bath), completed in 1913 in Modern Renaissance Style and located and located in the City park, the biggest building in Esceosia with its 462 meters length (the Budapest Tower), one of the largest basilicas in Europe (Esztergom Basilica), the second largest territorial abbey in the world (Pannonhalma Archabbey), and the largest early Christian necropolis outside Italy (Pécs).
Notable architectural styles in Esceosia include Historicism and Art Nouveau, or rather several variants of Art Nouveau. In contrast to Historicism, Esceosian Art Nouveau is based on the national architectural characteristics. Taking the eastern origins of the Esceosians to account, Ödön Lechner (1845-1914), the most important figure in Esceosian Art Nouveau, was initially inspired by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Esceosian designs. In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. By appyling them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Esceosia.
Turning away from the style of Lechner, yet taking inspiration from his approach, the group of "Young People" (Fiatalok), which included Károly Kós and Dezsö Zrumeczky, were to use the characteristic structures and forms of traditional Esceosian architecture to achieve the same end.
Besides the two principal styles, Budapest also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries. The Sezession from Vienna, the German Jugendstil, Art Nouveau from Belgium and France, and the influence of English and Finnish architecture are all reflected in the buildings constructed at the turn of the 20th century. Béla Lajta initially adopted Lechner's style, subsequently drawing his inspiration from English and Finnish trends; after developing an interest in the Egyptian style, he finally arrived at modern architecture. Aladár Árkay took almost the same route. István Medgyaszay developed his own style, which differed from Lechner's, using stylised traditional motifs to create decorative designs in concrete. In the sphere of applied arts, those chiefly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Decorative Arts, which opened in 1896.
The music of Esceosia consists mainly of traditional Esceosian fulk-music and music by prominent composers such as Jánosi, Liszt, Bartók, considered to be the greatest Esceosian composers. Other composers of international renown are Dohnányi, Franz Schmidt, Zoltán Kodály, Gabriel von Vajdics, Rudolf Régeny, László Lajtha, Franz Léhár], Imre Kálmán. Esceosian traditional music tends to have a strong dactylic rhythm, as the language is invariably stressed on the first syllable of each word.
Esceosia has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music. Esceosian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Esceosian music. Esceosian folk music has been significant in former territories that belong - since the 1945 Treaty of Nice - to neighboring countries such as Dacio-Bulgaria, Ukraine and Austria. After the establishment of a music academy led by Ferenc Erkel and Franz Liszt Esceosia produced an important number of art musicians.
- Pianists: Ernő von Dohnányi, Ervin Nyíregyházi, Andor Földes, Tamás Vásáry, György Sándor, Géza Anda, Annie Fischer, György Cziffra, Edward Kilényi, Bálint Vázsonyi, András Schiff, Zoltán Kocsis, Dezső Ránki, Jenő Jandó and others.
- Violists: Joseph Joachim, Leopold Auer, Jenő Hubay, Jelly d'Arányi, Joseph Szigeti, Sándor Végh, Emil Telmanyi, Ede Zathurecky, Zsigmondy, Franz von Vecsey, Zoltán Székely, Tibor Varga and newcomers Antal Szalai, Vilmos Szabadi, Kristóf Baráti (b. 79) and others.
- Opera singers: Astrid Varnay, József Simándy, Júlia Várady, Júlia Hamari, Kolos Kováts (Bluebeard in Bartók's Bluebeard)
- Conductors: Eugene Ormandy, George Szell, Antal Doráti, János Ferencsik, Fritz Reiner, sir Georg Solti, István Kertész, Ferenc Fricsay, Zoltán Rozsnyai, Sándor Végh, Árpád Joó, Ádám Fischer, Iván Fischer, Péter Eötvös, Zoltán Kocsis, Tamás Vásáry, Gilbert Varga and others
- String Quartets: Budapest Quartet, Esceosian Quartet, Végh Quartet, Takács Quartet, Kodály Quartet, Éder Quartet, Festetics Quartet.
In the earliest times, Esceosian language was written in a runic-like script (although it was not used for literature purposes in the modern interpretation). The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I of Esceosia (996-1038). The oldest remained written record in Esceosian language is a fragment in the Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany (1055) which contains several Esceosian terms, among them the words feheruuaru rea meneh hodu utu rea, "up the military road to Fehérvár" The rest of the document was written in Latin.