|Republic of Melakasia|
|Official languages|| |
|Recognised regional languages|| |
|Ethnic groups|| |
|Government||Unitary parliament socialist democracy|
|-||Total||$1.01 trillion (26th)|
|HDI (2018)|| 0.845|
|Time zone||UTC +8|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||ML; MLS; 232|
|Internet TLD||.ml (Melakasia)|
Melakasia, or the Republic of Melakasia, is a sovereign state located in Southeast Asia.
The Malacca Empire, or Melaka, was a Malay kingdom centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Melakasia. Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year of the empire by a renegade Malay Raja of Singapura, Parameswara who was also known as Iskandar Shah or Bai-li-mi-su-la (Parameswara). At the height of the empire's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important entrepots of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula, Riau Islands and a significant portion of the east coast of Sumatra.
As a bustling international trading port, Malacca emerged as a centre for learning and dissemination, and encouraged the development of the Malay language, literature and arts. It heralded the golden age of Malay kingdoms in the archipelago, in which Classical Malay became the lingua franca of the Maritime Southeast Asia alongside Chinese and Jawi script became the primary medium for cultural, religious and intellectual exchange. It is through these intellectual, spiritual and cultural developments, the Malaccan era witnessed the enculturation of a Malay identity, the Malayisation of the region and the subsequent formation of an Alam Melayu. This era was built on the existing Chinese cultural influence, which still can be seen to this day in architecture, cuisine and customs.
The Melaka-Portuguese Wars
In the year of 1511, the capital of Malacca was occupied by the Portuguese Empire, forcing the last King Emperor, Mahmud Shah (r. 1488–1511), to retreat to the further reaches of his empire, where he recollected his armies. The Empire soon retaliated with force and assistance from the Ming Dynasty. It was in this period that the Empire realised its military prowess.
For centuries, Malacca has been held up as an exemplar of Malay-Chinese civilisation. It established systems of trade, diplomacy, and governance that persisted well into the 19th century, and introduced concepts such as daulat – a distinctly Malay notion of sovereignty – and hormat - concept of honor unique to the region - that continues to shape contemporary understanding of Malay kingship. An opportunity awakened the sleeping war machine, which ousted the Portuguese through months of preparation and logistical operations. The capital was liberated in 1513, ending the First Melaka-Portuguese War.
The Malaccans and Portuguese would clash again multiple times, but the growing power of the Malaccan Empire and assistance from the Ming meant they gradually lost influence. The Second Melaka-Portuguese War in 1518 ended with a Portuguese victory initially, annexing Penang from the nation after the war's end in 1521. The following two wars, taking place in 1525 and 1529 respectively, would be over the sovereignty of the island, thus giving said wars the term, The Wars for Penang.
Malacca As A Growing Power
After establishing itself as a formidable enemy in Southeast Asia, Malacca and neighbouring nations enjoyed the absence of any capitalizing European powers. The Malaccan Empire expanded into Sumatra, eventually controlling most of the island. Outside the Malayan Peninsula and Sumatra, the Malaccan Empire did not have any immediate interest in growth or expansion.
The Royal Navy was modelled heavily after the Imperial Fleet of the Ming Dynasty, growing into the thalassocratic power its predecessors of Majapahit and Srivijaya once were. Trade envoys could be seen being protected by Malaccan escorts while sailing through the then-pirate-infested waters of the Java Sea and sometimes the Gulf of Thailand. Meanwhile, land units grew in numbers and the utilization of technology made the Royal Army a force not to be reckoned with. The arms trade between the Ming Dynasty and the Malaccan Empire intensified after the show of force by the European powers, and soon nearly every nation in Asia utilized gunpowder firearms for defensive purposes.
With the coronation of King Emperor Ibrahim Shah in 1653, the Malaccan Empire adopted expansionist policies that led to the invasions of the multiple kingdoms residing in the Sundanese islands. The status of the Empire meant that little opposition would be met towards their eastward expansion.
Soon, Ibrahim Shah remoulded the nation to include the islands of Java, Borneo, Mindanao, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, Bali, Maluku and Papua. The establishment of direct rule from Malacca meant that the entirety of the Malay Archipelago would be ruled under iron hegemony. That forced sense of unity died with Ibrahim Shah in 1700, and local dissent soon ripped the eastern Malaccan Empire apart.
After the death of King Emperor Ibrahim Shah, two rival political factions rose in the High Court, as well as the split between the two heir apparents. Alia Shah, the eldest daughter and technically first in line to the Malacca throne was denied coronation by senior officials and the Imperial Advisor, in favour of Iskandar Shah II, second in line to the throne.
It was later revealed that Iskandar Shah II had bribed the High Court into allowing him the right to the throne, but not before the nation fell into a civil war that mostly took place in Malaya and Sumatra. During the ensuing 4 years of chaos, control of the eastern islands slipped from the government and opposition entirely, becoming sovereign states in their own right. Eventually Alia Shah was killed while fleeing to Siam, and Iskandar Shah II ascended to the throne.
Decline and Revolution
The reign of Iskandar Shah II was brutal and damaging to both the Empire's state and reputation. Public executions of accused political enemies were held, and the extravagant spending of taxes on personal luxuries impoverished entire regions. During this period many fled to Siam, Java or Borneo for asylum, and began efforts to overthrow the King Emperor.
In 1721, the Malacca Revolution officially began in Sumatra after the arson of the King Emperor's personal villa in Aceh. The fire of revolution spread across the island, eventually sparking anti-monarchist sentiments in Malaya after the Taking of Singapura in 1724. After another 3 years of fighting, Iskandar Shah II was seized from his ship bound for the Portuguese Alvarines, and executed in public with a specially imported guillotine from France.